"To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat Induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate."

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2631079/?tool=pubmed

"Beat Induction is the process in which a regular isochronous pattern (the beat) is activated while listening to music. This beat, often tapped along by musicians, is a central issue in time keeping in music performance. But also for non-experts the process seems to be fundamental to the processing, coding and appreciation of temporal patterns. The induced beat carries the perception of tempo and is the basis of temporal coding of temporal patterns."

"Only after a few notes a strong sense of beat can be induced. Once the incoming material has induced a beat, a persistent mental framework is set up which guides the perception of new incoming material. This process, for example, facilitates the percept of syncopation, i.e., to "hear" a beat that is not carried by an event."

http://www.nici.ru.nl/mmm/papers/dh-100/dh-100.pdf


Human beings have a very high degree of sensitivity to tempo change. When listening to rhythm our brain continuously updates the current and expected tempo based exclusively on the repetition of the events just passed.

Use as an example a 16th hi-hat pattern playing in a drum machine or sequencer at a set tempo of 120 BPM. For the purpose of this exercise imagine that the drum machine we are using has some push-pull of events which is very common. We can choose to look at these timing errors as jitter away from the ideal 'perfect' tempo of 120 BPM but this fails to take in to account the principle of Beat Induction. Our expectation of sequential rhythmic events is based on the induced tempo set up by the previous rhythmic events. If the three 16th hi-hats just heard are 'pushed' then our brain updates the tempo accordingly.

Rhythmic 'Feel' Perception is 100% Relative and updated in Real-Time - it is based wholly on the timing regularity of the events just past.

This page is dedicated to looking at timing errors in various drum machines and sequencers and approaching the results as a function of Tempo-Change.

Midi Clock runs at 24 pulses per rhythmic quarter note.

At 120 BPM this equates to 2880 Midi Clock Pulses per minute.

A DAW recording sample rate of 48 kHz captures 2,880,000 audio samples per minute.

At 120 BPM there should be exactly 1000 samples between each Midi Clock pulse when
recorded at 48 kHz.

Elektron Machine Drum SPS-1MKIIUW/OS = Version 1.62

Test A - Internal Sync: GND IMP Sixteenths - 120 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 2.81 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 2.24 BPM

Akai MPC-3000/OS Version Vailixi 3.50

Mansell-Labs Web - http://www.mansell-labs.com/ 

Test A - Internal Sync: Sixteenths Rim Shot - 120 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 0.04 BPM

Test B: Precision Midi Clock: Sixteenths Rim Shot - 120 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 0.36 BPM

Roland TR-909/OS Version 1.00

Test A - Internal Sync: Sixteenths Rim Shot - 120 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 5.21 BPM

Test B: Precision Din-Sync: Sixteenths Rim Shot - 120 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 6.16 BPM

Test C: Precision Midi-Clock: Sixteenths Rim Shot - 120 BPM

Maximum Measured Tempo Change between any two consecutive Sixteenth Note intervals: 7.48 BPM

 

 

All material on this website copyright 2004-2014 Innerclock Systems Pty Ltd unless otherwise indicated.

No text or image may be reproduced in part or in full without prior written consent.

This site is best viewed using Google Chrome.